Need an argumentative essay on Article summary. Needs to be 4 pages. Please no plagiarism.It has also been established through previous research that some other major effects of stress includes synaptic plasticity in dopamanic neurons and increased cravings for drug. PET studies have supported the hypothesis that with alteration of dopamanic activity, stress can affect the reward-related processing.Previous studies have shown that dopamine promotes reward learning in part by allowing plasticity in the corticostrial circuits but impairs aversion learning altogether i.e. increase in dopamine in the striatum supports slow and gradual learning through determination of expected positive and negative outcomes with experiences and alteration in synaptic plasticity. Therefore, with the increase in dopamine in the striatum the long term memory for positive feedback stimulus is strengthened by the factor of stress while negative feedback association and learning are impaired. Moreover, depending on neural mechanisms stress also has an impact on reinforcement learning.Older studies had shown that the brain activity remains almost same in older adults and in case of reward based learning the striatal region of older people shows significant brain stimulations. Incidental memory pictures that were seen during or after a positive feedback showed no difference between the younger and the older brain. However, most studies shows that the affects of stress is much more on behavior is the later stages of life than during the earlier stages and therefore the present study aimed to compare between the two. More specifically, this study investigated what effect a cold stressor task or control task had on reinforcement learning among young and older adults. The main hypothesis was that the cold stressor that had been applied would result in improved reward learning but impair avoidance learning. Furthermore, the study aimed to measure the relatedness between reinforcement learning between

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