Write 2 page essay on the topic Describe the way that four philosophers we have studied treat the ideas of substance, space, centers, origins, and time. Then describe the common assumptions of the pre-Socratic philosophers on these topics, and how their world-view affected their ideas o.He thought water makes up every substance in the Universe on some basic level. He also believed every substance originally came from water. He also believed water was the original state of the Universe and everything still is water, but just in different states.Another Pre-Socratic philosopher who discussed the physical basis of the Universe was Parmenides. Parmenides’ main assumption about the universe is that it is one unchanging entity. The Universe physically is made up of only one thing, and there is only one universe. There is no change in the universe and there never was, and never will be. The Universe always has existed and always will exist (SEP). The world of human perception for Parmenides is a world of change and contingency, and not what is essentially real (SEP). What is real is the one static Universe.Parmenides’ view can in a way be seen as a precursor to that of Plato, who also placed an emphasis on what is eternal and unchanging. Plato believed that true knowledge could not be gained through the senses. Knowledge of sensible particulars is transient, and not eternal and unchanging knowledge (Phaedo). Plato believed the only way to true knowledge was through discovery of the Forms, which are Universal perfect versions of everything in the sensible world (Phaedo). The physical world for Plato is composed of instantiations of these forms, but they are not the most fundamental aspect of the Universe, because they are always changing, and are subject to the imperfect capacities of human perception. Only through reason can humans start to come close to the world of the forms, and only after death do they truly discover it.Epicurus is fundamentally an atomist like the Pre-Socratic Democritus before him. “Epicurus held that the elementary constituents of nature are undifferentiated matter, in the form of discrete, solid and indivisible

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